Polygraph or Lie Detector Test
Polygraph examination is a non-invasive procedure in which the arousal of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) of the subjects are tested with the help of electronic sensors attached to different parts of subject’s body. This is based on the Psycho-physiological principle that there will be an ANS arousal that can be detected in the body functioning when a person tries to lie or hide information related to his involvement in a criminal conduct.
Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling
Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling (BEOS) is a technique is based on various principles of Neurosciences in detecting the involvement of individuals in crime with the use of applied Electroencephalogram (EEG). This technique is based on the concept of Experiential Knowledge acquired by the subject through participation in a criminal activity. This is acquired through execution of a particular act or a personal participation in an event and hence it is different from Conceptual Knowledge of familiarity of the world. BEOS helps to reveal the presence or absence of Experiential Knowledge of crime-related activities in individuals who are investigated for the same. This is based on the fact that Probes that are presented to the suspect evoke remembrance of experience that he or she would have had. Such remembrance will be accompanied by extensive changes in the electrical oscillation pattern in the brain. The electrical oscillations are acquired and analyzed by a system called Neuron Signature System (NSS) developed exclusively for forensic use.
An invasive technique where a particular Barbiturate- Sodium Pentothal is administered to the subject which causes an alteration in his state of consciousness during which time questions related to the crime are asked. Sodium Pentothal is given in small increments till the subject exhibits certain symptoms like slurred speech and or motor restlessness. The drug is continuously administered in small doses to maintain a state of anesthesia. Sodium Pentothal affects the Frontal Lobe of brain to remove a person’s inhibition. It makes him more relaxed, comfortable, free and conversant.